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These characteristics can be explained by the demands of each sport type. Individual sports require athletes to be self-reliant, while team sports require group cohesion in order to be successful. Athletes participating in both team and individual sports score equally on measures of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness. These traits help provide a personality profile for sport psychologist seeking to work with certain types of sports. Sensation seeking is a phenomenon where an individual participates in novel, complex or intense activities with higher amounts of risks in order to satisfy their personal need for arousal.

High sensation seekers tend to participate in extreme sports, such as sky diving, car racing, scuba diving, whitewater sports, and skiing. These sports involve intense speed and excitement as well as high risks. Individuals with a moderate level of sensation seeking tend to participate in common sports that are unpredictable but also minimally risky. Some examples are basketball, baseball, volleyball, and golf. Low sensation seekers participate in sports that require large amounts of training and consistency, such as long-distance running, gymnastics, or swimming.

Different categories of sports display different mental health profiles. The only problem that is more prevalent in male athletes is drug and alcohol use. These are consistent with the general public, as well. Anxiety, depression, and sleep problems are most prevalent in highly aesthetic sports, such as ballet or gymnastics. These are least prevalent in high risk sports and team ball sports.

Eating disorders are more prevalent in athletes than the general public. For women eating disorders are highly prevalent in aesthetic, racing, and fine motor sports, and least prevalent in team ball sports. Eating disorders are most prevalent for men in high combat and contact sports. Exercise psychology can be defined as the study of psychological issues and theories related to exercise.

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For example, Division 47 of the APA is for exercise and sport psychology, not just one or the other, while organizations like AASP encompass both exercise and sport psychology. The link between exercise and psychology has long been recognized. In , William James discussed the importance of exercise, writing it was needed to "furnish the background of sanity, serenity As a sub-discipline, the amount of research in exercise psychology increased in the s and s, leading to several presentations at the second gathering of the International Society of Sport Psychology in As an interdisciplinary subject, exercise psychology draws on several different scientific fields, ranging from psychology to physiology to neuroscience.

Major topics of study are the relationship between exercise and mental health e. Recent evidence also suggests that besides mental health and well-being, sport practice can improve general cognitive abilities. When requiring sufficient cognitive demands, physical activity seems to be an optimal way to improve cognition, possibly more efficiently than cognitive training or physical exercise alone [96]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. October Basic types. Applied psychology. Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Psychology gets in the game. Sport psychology: A short history and overview of a field whose time has come, and how it can help you in your sport. The dawn of sport psychology in Europe, — Early pioneers of a new branch of applied science. Benjamin Eds. A brief history of sport psychology. Scripture: The application of "new psychology" methodology to athletics. Psychology and "The Babe". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 34 2 , Norman Triplett: Recognizing the importance of competition.

Karl S. Lashley and John B. Watson: Early research on the acquisition of skill in archery. Psychology and baseball: The testing of Babe Ruth. Sport psychology: The Griffith Era, — The Sport Psychologist, 9, The Tough Mind. In memoriam: Franklin M.

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About smocks and jocks. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1, Retrieved from Essential readings in sport and exercise psychology.

What is sports psychology?

Mental links to excellence. The Sport Psychologist, 2 2 , — Retrieved June 25, , from Precision Management Institute. No one told you when to run: The past and present is not the future of sport psychology. History of the Mental Game. Toward an understanding of the practice of sport psychology. Journal of Sport Psychology, 3, A reaction to Danish and Hale: A minority report. Journal of Sport Psychology, 4, Identity crisis in North American sport psychology: Academics in professional issues. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, Toward the professionalization of sport psychology.

The Sport Psychologist, 3 3 , Critical issues confronting the advancement of applied sport psychology. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11 2 , Andersen Eds. London: Routledge. Sports Psychology. Stress research in sport psychology: Three limitations and future directions. Berlin: Logos. What is this thing called mental toughness?

Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, Self-efficacy: The exercise of control see article. New York: W. Conceptualization of sport-confidence and competitive orientation: Preliminary investigation and instrument development. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8 3 , Intensity and interpretation of anxiety symptoms in elite and non-elite sports performers. Personality and Individual Differences, 17 5 , Motivational processes and the facilitation of performance, persistence, and well-being in sport.

Williams Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Coaching life skills through football: A study of award winning high school coaches. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19 , Sport-based life skills programming in the schools. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 21 2 , Burnout in sport: A systematic review. The Sport Psychologist, 21 , Sources and consequences of athletic burnout among college athletes.

Journal of Intercollegiate Athletics, 2 , Junior tennis players' preferences for parental behaviors. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22 , Achievement goals, motivational climates and motivational processes. Roberts Ed. Handbook of Sport Psychology. Positive reinforcement, performance feedback, and performance enhancement. Sport Psychology for Coaches. Human Kinetics. Interdependence Theory and Coach-Athlete Relationships. The measurement of cohesion in sport groups.

Duda Ed. Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52 , The variables of leadership: A review and conceptual framework. Academy of Management Review, 2 , Evolutionary sport and exercise psychology: Integrating proximate and ultimate explanations.

Sport Psychology – Theory to Application

Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14 3 , Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance 5th Edition. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield. Annual Review of Psychology. Van; Brewer, Britton W. Journal of Motor Behavior.

What does a sports psychologist do?

Relaxation and energizing techniques for regulation of arousal. In Williams, J. Act Mindfully. The Psychology of Enhancing Human Performance. Spring Publishing Co. Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology. Goal mapping.

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In Vealey, R. The application of goal setting to sports. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7 , Goal setting for peak performance. Goal setting in sport and exercise: A research synthesis to resolve the controversy.

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Myles Schrag. Courier Printing, Seeing is believing: Understanding and using imagery in sport. Mental imagery and consciousness: A theoretical overview. Sheikh Ed. Imagery: Current Theory, Research and Application pp. New York: Wiley. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13 1 , Does imagery work? Effects on performance and mental skills. Heads up baseball: Playing the game one pitch at a time. Lincolmwood, IL: Masters Press. P3 thinking. Assessing the effectiveness of self-talk interventions on endurance performance.

Bower, Gordon H. American Psychologist , Vol 36 2 , Feb , Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. Freeman and Company: New York.


The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique.

A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Due to the emphasis on performance output in the corporate environment, which to a large extent is similar to the challenges encountered by elite sport persons, it is proposed that sport psychology rather than clinical psychology could be utilised as a way to assist employees to cope with the demands of the workplace. It is believed that by adopting the principles of sport psychology, employees can learn how to use mental skills, not only to enhance their performance in the work place, but also to deal with daily life stressors.

The main focus of the study was to develop a mental skills programme based on sport psychology principles and to determine its effectiveness in the corporate world. JavaScript is disabled for your browser.

Personality in Sports - Sports Psychology